The first successful and reproducible gene targeting by homologous recombination, without the concomitant occurrence of ectopic events, has been reported. This will be a powerful approach for the characterization of gene function in rice, an important crop and a model for other cereal species. Models have been proposed to explain gene replacement by homologous recombination, including a possible model for Agrobacterium-mediated gene targeting using a strong positive-negative selection. Pubmed